2018/02/23

Evolution has no mechanism

Epigenetic alterations and the genomic instability

The methylation structures of DNA and histones stabilize the genome. In order for the cell to function properly along to the program written for it, many epigenetic information structures will need to be in the right place. Even a small disturbance or imbalance in the methylation profiles may lead to genomic instability and hence to errors i.e. mutations in DNA, the cellular passive information library.

A stem cell has its DNA complete but the stem cell does nothing because it lacks epigenetic programming. It has no function or purpose. It needs epigenetic information structures to get the task and identity. Just DNA does not give the cell a function or identity.

Organisms experience ecological adaptation driven by food, climate, various stressors, environmental toxicants, sensory stimuli, etc. Adaptation to changing conditions always leads to changes in epigenetic information structures. Methylation profiles that experience changes will expose DNA to harmful mutations. This scientific fact can be examined by keywords:

epigenetic alterations genomic instability mutation


Recent significant observations of the ecological adaptation of organisms have been rapid and significant changes in the beak sizes and shapes of the Darwin's Finches. Scientists have already admitted that the changed dietary type led to changes in epigenetic information structures and variations in bird morphology. Other researchers have reported some changes in those birds' DNA. This is mainly about SNPs, ie point mutations and CNVs, that is, copy number variations. Point mutations can also be found in tens of millions in the human genome at the population level. Their number correlates with disease-causing genetic mutations that are already 220,270 at an annual rate of more than 20,000. The large number of SNPs in the dog genome correlates with the prevalence of hereditary diseases in dogs. In nature, the Red Fox has less than 1500 protein DNA encoding sequences less than, for example, a Bat-Eared Fox that has not undergone so many adaptation steps as the Red Fox. The disappearance of information is also evident in the fusion of  chromosomes and the decrease in their number.

It is therefore perfectly clear that changing epigenetic information structures are contributing to genetic degradation, although there are, of course, other causes. Viruses have been found to cause genomic instability. Viruses also need methyl groups for their own gene expression but lack mechanisms for methyl production. Therefore, they take it from its host cell whose genome becomes unstable due to the imbalance in the methylation profiles. The more genomes degenerate, the weaker the DNA repair mechanisms work and the faster the degradation phenomenon.

There is no mechanism for evolution because any change in organisms is due to the epigenetic regulation of existing biological information OR the gradual but inevitable corruption of information.