2017/02/18

Plant miRNAs regulate gene expression

Ingested plant miRNAs regulate gene expression in animals

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3351922/

Excerpt: "The incidence of genetic material or epigenetic information transferred from one organism to another is an important biological question. A recent study demonstrated that plant small RNAs acquired orally through food intake directly influence gene expression in animals after migration through the plasma and delivery to specific organs.

Non-protein coding RNAs, and in particular small RNAs, were recently revealed as master chief regulators of gene expression in all organisms. Endogenous small RNAs come in different flavors, depending on their mode of biogenesis. Most microRNAs (miRNA) and short interferring RNAs (siRNA) derive from long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursors that are processed into small RNA duplexes, 20 to 25-nt long, by RNaseIII enzymes called Dicer. One strand of small RNA duplexes is loaded onto an Argonaute protein that executes silencing by cleaving or repressing the translation of homologous mRNA. In certain species, RNA cleavage is followed by DNA methylation and/or histone modification, leading to heritable epigenetic modification.

Endogenous small RNAs play essential roles during development and stress responses, and control transposable elements and chromatin states. Small RNAs can also be produced in response to invasion by exogenous nucleic acids from viruses, bacteria, transgenes, etc. Under these circumstances, small RNAs act in defense mechanisms by directing the destruction of the invader. Importantly, exogenous small RNAs and some endogenous small RNAs are mobile within certain organisms. Moreover, exogenous small RNAs can be amplified during the defense mechanisms, allowing the spreading of RNA silencing from the cell where it is activated to the rest of the organism."

My comment: Diet is the most significant factor affecting the epigenetic control of gene expression within all animals. Random mutations have no role in variation and adaptation that organisms experience in nature. That study proves several claims and observation regarding diet induced epigenetic gene expression.

Diet strongly affects our heritable epitranscriptomes. By eating healthy food, we can influence the healthy condition of our genome too, because the epitranscriptome is directly linked to gene sequences. Harmful mutations occur due to poor nutrition, for example. These clever and complex mechanisms point to Intelligent Desing and Creation.

Here's a few examples of how diet microRNAs affect the gene expression. Note that these linked articles don't tell you anything about the mechanisms behind rapid adaptation, but they only try to maintain the heresy of Darwinian evolution. False science.

1. Italian wall lizards.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080421-lizard-evolution.html

2. How does a lizard go vegetarian?

3. Butterflies' diet impact evolution of traits

4. Diet shift induced rapid evolution of size and function in a predatory bird.