2017/06/22

Bacteria are not simple life forms

Several bacterial senses point to Intelligent Design and Creation

You may have heard about an idea that complex life forms evolved from simple life forms such as bacteria. Does observed biology support such claim? No, because actually bacteria are not simple life forms. In my previous posts, I have told about MO-1 marine bacterium that has seven ion flow motors synchronized with a 24 gear-wheel planetary gearbox.

http://sciencerefutesevolution.blogspot.fi/2017/01/seven-ion-flow-motors-synchronized-with.html

Bacteria also have different kind of sensors by which they are able to sense the surrounding environment. The assortment of different senses within bacteria might be surprising:

1. Sense of smell
https://www.technologynetworks.com/proteomics/news/scientists-investigate-bacterial-sense-of-smell-288948


 
4. Sense of light
https://www6.slac.stanford.edu/news/2016-05-05-scientists-watch-bacterial-sensor-respond-light-real-time.aspx

"Using the world’s most powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, they were able to see atomic motions as fast as 100 quadrillionths of a second – 1,000 times faster than ever before.

Further, “We’re the first to succeed in taking real-time snapshots of an ultrafast structure transition in a protein, in which a molecule excited by light relaxes by rearranging its structure in what is known as trans-to-cis isomerization,” says the study’s principal investigator, Marius Schmidt from the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee."



7. Sense of gravity

8. Sense of changing temperature
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20049417

9. Sense of salt stress (osmolarity)


11. Sense of chemicals (chemotaxis)




15. Sense of electron acceptors

16. Sense of metabolites

17. Sense of pathogens and viruses

All of these senses require perfect design in which receptors and response regulators were created simultaneously. Rapid bacterial adaptations and changes are based on designed mechanisms, not random mutations or selection. The theory of evolution is just an illusion.

2017/06/16

Curcumin has anticancer effects

Anticancer effect of curcumin inhibits cell growth through miR-21/PTEN/Akt pathway in breast cancer cell

Excerpt from abstract: "Curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from turmeric, which that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. Curcumin has numerous effects, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-oxidative and antimicrobial effects. However, the effects of curcumin on human breast cancer cells remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects and the mechanisms by which curcumin affects breast cancer cells. 

The anticancer effect of curcumin on cell viability and cytotoxicity on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was detected using flow cytometry, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindolestaining assay and caspase-3/9 activity kits. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression in MCF-7 cells. The protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phospho-protein kinase B (pAkt) was determined by western blot analysis. miR-21 was transfected into MCF-7 cells and the anticancer effect of curcumin on cell viability and the expression of PTEN and pAkt was analyzed. 
 
The present results demonstrated that curcumin inhibited cell viability and induced cytotoxicity of MCF-7 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, by inducing apoptosis and increasing caspase-3/9 activities. In addition, curcumin downregulated miR-21 expression in MCF-7 cells by upregulating the PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. The present study has for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, revealed the anticancer effect of curcumin in suppressing breast cancer cell growth, and has elucidated that the miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway is a key mechanism for the anticancer effects of curcumin."

My comment: Curcumin is a nice addon to our list of anticancer foods:

- Tomatoes
- Broccoli
- Berries
- Walnuts
- Garlic
- Beans

http://sciencerefutesevolution.blogspot.fi/2017/05/top-six-cancer-fighting-superfoods.html

And apple peels and red grapes:
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170606112750.htm

Curcumin induces apoptosis (programmed cell death), which is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms in cases where something goes wrong in the cell. Most cancers are not just bad luck, instead, we can take care of our epigenomes by eating healthy food and having good life habits. Have a healthy life!

2017/06/13

Environmental genomic memories can be passed on for 14 generations

Over 100,000,000 histone modifications maintain stable epigenetic inheritance

Excerpt: "In multicellular organisms, specificity of cell types is maintained by mitotically heritable differences in gene expression, which are in part regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. These include RNA-based mechanisms, histone modifications, and DNA methylation. The full range of epigenetic marks is currently unknown but is potentially enormous, considering that the diploid human epigenome contains >108 Cytosines (of which >107 are CpGs) and >108 histone tails that can all potentially vary.

DNA methylation is one of the best understood epigenetic modification and has an important role in several biological processes such as genome imprinting, defence against viral sequences, inhibition of recombination, as well as assembly of heterochromatin.

Aberrant DNA methylation patterns have been linked to genomic instability and increased mutation rates. The role of DNA methylation has been mainly explored in the context of cancer. Findings from these studies have extensively demonstrated that cancer development is associated with gain of DNA methylation at CpG islands, loss-of-imprinting and epigenetic remodeling of repeat elements. Interestingly, altered DNA methylation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of other age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurological and metabolic disorders, and autoimmune diseases."

My comment: 108 histone tails, a biological bar-coding mechanism, can all potentially vary with several other epigenetic mechanisms in our cells. They all are affected by foods, stress, climate and other environmental factors. This is why we can only observe variation within created kinds but no evolution from a bacterium into something other form of life.

Aberrant methylation patterns have been linked to genomic instability and increased mutation rates. This means that poor nutrition, alcohol consumption, smoking, toxins etc. expose us to genetic errors. Genetic mutations never result in adaptation or evolution. There are no mechanisms for large scale evolution. That's why creation and design. Don't get misled.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170420141753.htm

2017/06/12

Not evolution but epigenetic variation of plants

These 6 Common Vegetables Are Actually All The Same Plant Species

Excerpt: "You may not have heard of the plant Brassica oleracea, but you've definitely eaten it. Many common vegetables that many people buy and eat on a regular basis are actually all derived from this plant, and are considered the same species.

Over the last few thousand years, farmers have bred Brassica oleracea into 'cultivars' (also known as subspecies) that eventually became these veggies:
  


Brassica is also known as the wild mustard plant.

"The wild plant is a weedy little herb that prefers to grow on limestone outcroppings all around the coastal Mediterranean region," Jeanne Osnas, a researcher at Purdue University who blogs as "The Botanist in the Kitchen," writes of Brassica oleracea.

"It is a biennial plant that uses food reserves stored over the winter in its rosette of leaves to produce a spike of a few yellow flowers at the end of its second summer before dying. Those nutritious leaves make its domesticated derivatives important food crops in much of the world now."

This one plant was selectively bred over hundreds of years to create dozens of wildly different vegetables.

By selecting and breeding plants with bigger leaves, or larger buds, the various cultivars were created.

Kale and collard greens, which are part of the same subspecies, were created by making the ancestor plant's leaves bigger, and were domesticated in Europe sometime before 300 BCE.

Red, green and savoy cabbages were created from a kale cultivar (likely the European collard greens) in the 1200s by selecting for a large terminal bud - the growing end at the top of the plant.

The leaves are tightly wound around a short, wide stem (the cabbage's core). Brussels sprouts are like tiny cabbages, except they grow from the buds along the plant's stem. They first hit the scene in the 1200s as well.

Kohlrabi was created by selecting for a thicker stalk in a kale plant around the 1400s. Chinese broccoli, another subspecies of B. oleracea, was domesticated in China and is distinct from broccoli, which was created from a kale predecessor in the 1500s.

Broccoli was developed by selecting for the larger flower clusters, which are then harvested before they bloom. Cauliflower was developed from one of hundreds of broccoli varieties."

My comment: About 95% of plants' genes are epigenetically silenced. This fact explains the huge potential for variation with them. Plants can experience rapid and versatile adaptation due to clever mechanisms. Phenotype variation is always based on epigenetic factors or loss of biological information. There are no mechanisms for large scale evolution. Don't get lost.

2017/06/07

A comparison of two models of the origin of life and biodiversity

A comparison of two models of the origin of life and biodiversity


Darwinian tree of life
Creation orchard




A hypothetical model. Never observed.
Observational science.
Requires increase of biological information, new structures and functions. Never observed.
Genetic mutations are mostly harmful errors and result in degradation and loss of biological information. Genes are driven by life(style). Observed science.
Based on an assumption that organisms experience positive changes through random mutations and selection. Genes are drivers. Never observed.
Variation of organisms is based on existing information = Epigenetic mechanisms are induced by nutrition, climate, stress and other environmental factors. Observed science.
Not supported by the fossil record. A serious lack of the most important transitional fossils. Still missing link between apes and humans. The assumed ancestor of primates?
Confirmed by the fossil record. Fossils point to a global, catastrophic event and rapid burials.
Not supported by modern science, because:
- There are no mechanisms leading to simultaneous and synchronized increase of different forms (digital, analog, metadata) of biological information.
Supported by modern science, because:
- Changes in organisms are based on epigenetic mechanisms or loss of biological information.
Biggest problems:
- Abiogenesis
- Dinosaur bones’ soft tissues.
- 203,000 disease-causing genetic defects in the human DNA.
- Dog breeding shows the results of variation: a dead end.
- Molecular mechanisms and language of DNA are way too complex. Random lottery is not able to build such intelligent mechanisms.
- Receptors, signals and response regulators! Irreducible complexity.

Biggest problems:
- The most of created kinds are extinct.
Conclusion: Darwinian tree of life is not based on science.
Conclusion: Creation orchard is supported by discoveries made by modern science.